A similar entry appears in the Wheel of Time Companion confirming the information available in the main story arc.
The Queen's Bounty is a monetary gift given to beggars by the Queen of Andor. She distributes it personally on High Days. No one can be denied the bounty for any reason. Even people wanted by the law can't be arrested while receiving the Queen's Bounty (TEotW, Ch. 39). The bounty ensures no one needs to beg in Caemlyn.
"Even so, he could take the Queen's Bounty at the Palace, even with things as hard as they are. On High Days, the Queen gives it out with her own hands, and there's never anyone turned away for any reason. No one needs to beg in Caemlyn. Even a man under warrant can't be arrested while he's taking the Queen's Bounty." (Basel Gill; The Eye of the World, Chapter 39)